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RGGU BULLETIN 12/08 Scientific monthly History / Studia classica et mediaevalia series Kentavr/ Centaurus Studia classica et mediaevalia 5 Moscow 2008 12/08 ...

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this article poses a problem of determination what sources shaped views on subject and method of historical research during the sixteenth seventeenth centuries in the Western Europe. In this period the history was just defining itself as an academic discipline, and the character of this process was very contradictory. Notion of historical subject was being formed within the frames of cognitive practices that existed at that time. the history was consciously opposed to these practices; its specificity and consistency as a special branch of knowledge used to be excessively exaggerated. On the one hand, critical attacks of skepticism, cartesianism, and neopirronism denied right of history to exist as a part of the societys cognitive system. but on the other hand, they actually shaped scientific bases for the comprehension of past, developed and transformed later in the context of cultural models and visions of the nineteenth century. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries determination of subject of history and its actual content was very dynamic and set to a large degree by the crisis type of historicism of that period. It was especially important for thinkers of the sixteenth seventeenth centuries, who sought to develop methods of comprehension of past, to determine causal relationships and strong regularities, that was justified theoretically by a possibility to identify nature of historical knowledge with a nature of science .


Chekhonadskaya the noble and indescribable beetle:

the beetle (dol) in Medieval Irish literature and myth Up to the present moment, there havent been almost any special studies dedicated to insects and invertebrates in the medieval Irish culture. this article deals with the idea of the beetle (chafer) in the medieval Ireland. As a rule,

the beetle is not associated with buzzing and noise (as, for example, in russia):

in Old and Middle Irish texts it is a symbol of venomousness and blackness .

the del (beetle, chafer) is a stinging parasite: in the Life of saint Ita and in a late saga the Fate of the children of tuirenn (Oidhe Chloinne Tuireann) we find a tale of an enormous beetle who was feeding himself on the forbearing saint (or king) for years. black hair, eyes and lashes are often compared with the colour of a chafer. In the same time the beetle is perceived as a bright, shining creature: a magic blue cloak looks like a beetles back. the beetle is often found as a name of people and animals. A hero in the Ulster cycle of tales, Dubthach Dol Ulad (the beetle of Ulstermen) is endowed with all features of a beetle: he is black-haired, uses a poisonous, stinging spear and in the same time uses shining sword and radiant shield .

In this aspect he is close to bricriu Nemthenga (the Poisonous tongue): this name originates from the adjective brecc (many-coloured) and implies the idea of shining and glimmering .


Chernina Non gente, sed fide Judaeus and fide et gente Hebraeus:

the problem of religious conversion in 9th century al-Andalus An article tells about important events in the spiritual and religious life which took place in the Iberian Peninsula a century after its conquest by Moors .

till this moment there is no doubt in the status of Islam as a predominating confession and it took place a gradual islamization of the spanish-christian society. this process caused a powerful resistance of radical christian circles who gave birth to the movement of the so called martyrs of crdoba .

At the same time in al-Andalus polemical correspondence between one of the leaders of christian activist Paul Alvari and a former clerk of st-Denis Abbey who converted to Judaism Bodo-Eleazar .

the documents that witness about these events form an image of the society in the situation of some religious chaos. the strict measures against conversion go together with a certain degree of religious indifference. Orthodox circles of all three confessions withstand to this situation, but without great success. the dominative trend is a gradual islamization of more and more people of al-Andalus .

I. Kaliteevskaya the castilian royal court of the 14th century after the poem Rimado de Palacio the goal of the article is to reconstruct an image of a royal court as it is depicted in a poem of the late fourteenth century, the Rimado de palaio by Pedro Lopez de Ayala (castilian courtier, chronicler, translator, poet, moralist, and philosopher). this image is described through the relationships of court with a kingdom, a king, and a courtier. the analysis reveals that Pedro Lopez de Ayala perceives court as a special space and an exclusive community that has its own characteristics and is equally dangerous for outsiders and for insiders, including king himself. the integrity of this image characterizes the stage of the evolution of the castilian court in the period the poem was created .

A. Kasatkina

the tower of chastity and the path of transformation:

Jacques Lefvre d`Etaples and John Fisher on Mary Magdalene The article is focused upon the archetypal imagery used by Lefvre and Fisher when describing Magdalen in their polemics. The fact that in Lefvres description Mary of bethany bears features of the virgin in a tower archetypal image leads to the conclusion that in the first of his treatises the French humanist was arguing for the existence of two Magdalens as he obviously believed that not only Mary, cured from devils, but also Mary of bethany came from the tower-town. It is shown that the archetypal individuation plot, similar to a fairy-tale, is implicitly present in Fishers text, and allows to understand why the English bishop so strongly argued against Lefvre, whom he treated with so much respect. Learning which elements of the collective unconscious resonated in the psychic of the two opponents, one can better know them as persons, and realize to what extent the unconscious bears impact upon the intellectual work .

B. Kayachevthe Golden Lamp: a Homeric hapax in Virgils Aeneid

The article seeks to elucidate the poetic significance of Virgils use of the Homeric hapax lychnus. Hapax legomena being a most specific category of Homeric words, lychnus becomes to Virgils time eminently rich in various literary connotations, some of which are reflected in this new context .

First of all, the single use of lychnus in Virgil (Aeneid 1, 726) is clearly referring to its only context in Homer (Odyssey 19, 34), thus contrasting. for example, Venus with Athena both of whom help their human protgs, or, rather unexpectedly, Dido with Penelope, both of whom unknowingly welcome as guests their (actual or future) husbands. Theocritus adoptation of the Homeric use of lcnoj (Heracliscus, 52) is likewise alluded to, with underlying juxtapposition of two heroes, Aeneas and Hercules. At the same time Virgil

references the Homeric problem concerning the exact meaning of lcnoj:

with Aen. 1, 727 noctem flammis funalia uincunt, he evidently hints at Aristonicus explanation of lcnoj in Homer as derivative from lein t ncoj to dispel darkness, and thus applied to a torch. An alternative etymology may also be suggested (from the root luk- / leuk-), by refer-ence to Lucretius only use of lychnus (5, 295). In sum, by using the hapax lychnus, Virgil alludes not only to Gomer, but also to theocritus, Aristonicus, Lucretius and possibly others .


Krinitsyna Nostre parti procul dubio patet iustitia:

the image of the monarch in the Kingdom of toledo of the 7th century (after the letters of braulio of saragosa) the correspondence between braulio, a bishop of saragosa in Visigothic spain from 631 to 651, and Visigothic king chindasvinth (642653) is a very important historical source of political thought. It represents an image of the ideal ruler. Justice (iustitia) is one of the main qualities of exemplary king .

First of all it means that a sovereign must obey the Gods power, second that he is law-abiding, and finally, he has to reward everyone according to his deserts. these three principal meanings of the world iustitia were formulated in the works of Isidore of seville (about 560636), especially in Etymologiae, Sententiae and Differentiae. the isidorian concept of just ruler is founded on the legal tradition of Ancient rome and on the biblical texts. In the works of Isidore these two traditions supplement each other. His ideas on the model ruler were carried on and developed by his followers and theirs disciples, for example, by Braulio and Julian of Toledo (680690) .

P. Lebedev christianity and the Empire: position in christian apologetics (from the end of the 2nd century AD to the first part of the 3rd) this article is devoted to views of hristian apologysts upon the roman Empire in the end of the second century and the first half of the third century A.D. the author of the article comes to conclusion, that there were two main positions: positive attitude to the roman Empire and its role in history (tertullian; Origen of Alexandria) and the negative one (Minucius Felix; cyprian, the bishop of Carthage). However in all examined writings the Roman Empire takes a considerable place in history of human society, and all mentioned authors postulate the loyalty of christians to the contemporary roman state .

B. Nikolsky themes of freedom and slavery in Euripides cyclops and Athenian democracy An analysis of the themes of slavery and freedom in Euripides cyclops in the context of Athenian political thought of the 5th 4th centuries b.c. makes it possible to assume that these notions as represented in the play should be understood in their metaphorical political sense, and that the general meaning of the play relates to contemporary discussions on Athenian democracy. Cyclops displays the ambivalence of democratic freedom, which is regarded from two different points of view: while Odysseus epitomizes a democratic view of democratic freedom, the satyrs may represent the same democratic freedom, only from the oligarchic point of view. Displaying two opposing views on democratic freedom, the drama harmonizes them by bringing them into conflict with the image of tyranny. We may regard the concrete social function of the play as that of harmonizing opposite opinions on Athenian democracy by contrasting both of them with the image of the enemy .

P. Shkarenkov Ennodiuss Vita Epiphani: rhetoric discourse and the formation of the symbolic image of authority in Ostgoth Italy the article deals with Ennodiuss concept of theodericuss royal power .

The concept contains two main aspects, the first being the patriotic, nationalItalian one, and the second being the religious one. Ennodius has no intention of including theodericus into the chain of roman emperors, on the contrary, he opposes theodericus to them. Paying almost no attention to the Empire and roman imperial ideology, Ennodius attempts to compare theodericus with hellenistic tradition in general and with Alexander of Macedonian in particular. Ennodius includes theodericus into a wider philosophical context of the hellenistic tradition of royal power, which sees the Empire as its variation .

G. Zaharov The work of Auxentius of Dorostorum De fide, vita et obitu Ulfilae as a monument of Latin Arian tradition (the end of 4th century) this article is consecrated to the reconstruction of theological teaching of Gothic bishop Ulfila and his disciple Auxentius in the context of the development of homoian Arianism in the danubian region. the homoian theological doctrine was created in the reign of emperor constantius (337361 A.D.) on the council of rimini and seleucia (359 A.D.). the aim of homoian church group was a pacification and association of different doctrinal parties on the basis of the very indistinct idea that the Son is like (similis) His Father according to the scriptures. In the reign of orthodox emperor theodosius (379395 A.D.) homoian group became a pursued sect. the result of these changes was a radicalization of homoian theological tradition and the work of Auxentius about Ulfila was a monument of this radical homoian Arianism. Auxentius attributes to Ulfila the idea that Son of God was created by the power of Father .

this conception obviously contradicts to the creed of fathers of the council of rimini. In the work of Auxentius we can also find a radical opposition between the unbegotten Deity of Father and only-begotten Deity of Son. However from the other sources we know that the teaching of Ulfila, who participated in reconciliatory homoian council of Constantinople (360 A.D.), was not so radical. so we can make a conclusion that Auxentius developed the of Ulfilas theological ideas in a more radical direction. However we also have to admit that Auxentius has kept a main idea of Ulfilian theology the idea of submission of Son in all things to God the Father. In this stressed attention to the idea of power and submission we can find a deep difference between the Ulfilian doctrine and the orthodox tradition in which the central place belongs to idea of unity of persons of saint trinity in one substance, will, energy and love .

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