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ISBN978-985-515-606-3(.2) ISBN978-985-515-604-9 蠫 .

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, ..[1,.103],..[2,.50],..[3,.143]-:1ࠖ,(,,);2 ࠖ,(,,.)3ࠖ,, .

.Grevisse⠫Lebonusage1964.,7 ..۠ɠ ,2007..Grevisse,,:I)adverbesdemanire:a)adverbesde degr(beaucoup),b)adverbesdengation(ne...pas),c)adverbesdaspect,(soudain,longtemps);II)adverbsdelieuetdetemps(ailleurs,demain);III) adverbsmarquantunerelationlogique(donc,pourtant)., ,.: 1.Ce pome n'est pas franchement[toutfait]mauvais.2.Pierreaparlfranchement[demaniere franche].3.Franchement[Pourparlerentoutefranchise], cepomen'estpasmauvais[4,.1218] .

,, ,,,adverbsdemanire(), .

, ,,HenningNolke,OleMordrup,SuzanneSchlyter,

Christian Molinier, , -ment, :

adverbs de constitunt/ adverbs de phrase (, /,), ,,:

, cest...que .

  , () , .

, .

  (-ment), .

, -ment,,:htivementlahteenhteavechte sanshte,petitpetit,paspas,petitscoups..[5,.26].,.2 .

 :(..),蠫(..),,(..), .

,, :(),,,, .

-ment: doucement ,, , , htivement ; 젖 prp. N, prp.Adj:parcoeur,envain, (prp.) (N) (Adj) -ment, .

prp.N,prp .

Adj:avecdouceur,,endouce,avecamour, sansamour.,,,,.prp.N.Adj., prp.(dt.)N/Adj.,, .

ʠ , .

: , .:,. - ,,, .

-5..۠ɠ :.Puisilremontaitlentementlesrues[6, .

42].Seulementquelquesgouttesquigonflaientlentemententreleslvresde laplaie[7,.50].OlivierBertin,allongsursondivan,soufflaitlentement entreseslvres[6,.3].imparfait,(uneaction passeinacheve,nilafin,nilecommencementdelactionnesontpasindiqus) .

lentement :

imparfait (.: ni la fin, ni le commencementdelactionnesontpasindiquslentementd'unemanire lente,d'unmouvementlent;enparaissantdurerlongtemps.),,,(mouvement)., .,remontermonter de nouveau; allervers, parcourir de nouveau, vers le haut; gonfler faire augmenterdevolume;soufflerexpulserdel'air,parlabouche., 젖(paslents),(), . , , .

  Je criejoyeusement: Ohe![6,.139] (enlevanttrshautlavoix) .

joyeusement ,avecjoie, Jassisteainsiavecjoiebizarrecettepromenade matinale [6, . 133]. vecjoiebizarre (bizarrecequiscartedelusagecommun,decequiestconsidr commenormal,raisonnable),,,assister .

, (), -ment .

, .

1.,../....:,2000.832 .

2.,../... .:,1970.175 .

-6.2 3., . ../..,..//..:...:,2004.416 .

4. Grevisse, M. Lebonusage/ M. Grevisse,Andr Goosse // Grammaire Franaise .

8-ime Edition.Revues Editions J.Duculot, S.A. Gembloux, 1964.1600 .

5.,..ʠ:.....-./..;ߠ .. .,1976. 37 .

6.Saint-Exupery de,A.Terredeshommes. Paris:Gallimard, 1939.182 p .

7. Flaubert, G. Lducation sentimentale. Editions en langues trangres. 541 .

Thearticledescribesthestructuralcharacteristicsofquantitative-qualitativeadverbial modifiersofmannerintheFrenchlanguage .

   

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, , : (1 )1 X,2Y,3 X,4Y,5YX,6 YX,7YX,8 YX,9,Z;(2)1 ,2»,3»,4 .

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1,2,3,4 -,5 .

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, . Ѡ,. , . , . annhernd .2 ,annherungsweise,approximativ,circa,zirka,ungefhr,etwa,schtzungsweise,., . , .

annhernd , approximativ , berschlglich , ungefhr , .

,., .

  (:

.ErschliefungefhrzwlfStunden.. ..ࢠ;.Die ungefhre Anzahl der Stadtbewohner betrgt 250 000 Menschen. .

250000..  250 000 .) ., ,Z. 1.1.1.9, Z.1 ,1, 젖2 .

,, .,,.  , ,, . ,,,,,,.:.mehrals20%,20% bersteigen/bertreffen;./20%,/20%,20%,20%////-;./20%,/20%,/20%,20%/ //(3.1.1.2

-11..۠ɠ Y) .

,, ,, ,,,- .

Thearticlediscussesthetechniqueoforderingofapproximators.Thistechniqueisbased onaspecialmetalanguageofindividualindexes.Themetalanguagecanbeusedforordering ofapproximationexpressionmeansindifferentlanguages .

   

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-12.2 ,, (,) .()( ), 젖,[2,.42] .

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1.:

.,,a+nd[a:] ..,,-.,:hand[ha:nd],brand[bra:nd],wander['wa:nd]. i.,. .,.,.:bid[bi:d],bin[bi:n], bit[bi:t],fin[fi:n],dish[di: ],tip[ti:p];

,, . asp,ass,ast ,- [ ],[].,,,,,,:grass[grs],glass [gls],fast[fst] .

2.,, :

., ,+l,a+ll [u l]:fall[fu l],wall[wu l]. -.,..,.,.,.,. . , [eI]: eat [eIt], pea [peI], steal[steIl],wean[weIn],weave[weIv];

.   - [i:],,,.,,.,.-.,..:make[mi:k],

-13..۠ɠ mane[mi:n],name[ni:m],shake[ i:k],grave[gri:v],shame[ i:m]. -,[u],. [i:]:load[li:d],most[mi:st].  ,ow[u:]:mouse[mu:s],house[hu:s],gown[gu:n],brown [bru:n],round[ru:n],sound[su:n],doubt[du:t],bow[bu:];

. .(,,,,,, ,,,,)f,th,s,sh.,, :Friday['vr:dI],friends[vrInz]..:1)seagull['ze:gl],supper['z p ],spider['zbd r];2)shovel[' vl], shirt[ ert],shoe[ u:];

.,[d], [l,n,r]field,child,fold,hold,blind,hand,coward, land(,,.,) .

3.,. .ow,awv:snow[sna:v],sow [sa:v],lawyer['la:vjer],owe[ja:v].[3,.86] .

4.Ѡ,, , . [w] :

sweep [su:p] , . , . ; swim [sum] ,.;swore.,.,.,;swoon[zaund].-., .[d][l,n]. (.). [d] , :fiel(d),chil(d),hol(d), mil(d),gol(d),tol(d), fin(d), ben(d),frien(d),stan(d) .

5. ,,-lr,rl,r [d]:tailor['taIld r],smaller['sm d r].[d] [l,n, r] (, .

,-,.-.,.):feel [fi:ld],school[sku:ld],idle[aIdl],mile[maIld] .

6.,,, : little tickle, mask mast, parrick paddock, arrisheddish,keevykeemy,siglesidle,brodlebrogle,shingleshindle, brickiebrittle,ieetachleerach .

-14.2 7. () ( svarabhakti) .

,sharnsherran,harnharran,harren;larklarrack,stirk sterreck,tarchlarick,wairsh''wairesh,elmellem,haulms heliums,filmvellum .

8.   [r], :shrillshirl;cresskerse;crispcrips,curps;runurn,earn, yarn;prettyperty,pirty, purty;gringirn,gern, gurn;rederd,hurd;

breadbird;friendfernd,vernd;drilldirl;burstbrust;curdscrud (crod) .

9.  . , entice[taIs,teIs],turnip[ni:p],about,aquaint,agree,allow, among,assuage,away,asylum(,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,);believe,deliver,desire, directly,disturb,eleven, enough,except,occasion,inquest,epidemic( .

,.,,,) .,,., :actually,celery,company,different,evening,every,general,natural,

nobody,pennyworth,somebody.:

barrow,carrot,carry,donkey,empty,furrow,harrow,harvest .

, , ,, . 堫, , .

1.,..:/..//::../......:

,1990.211 .

2., . . / .A. .M.:, 1982.128 .

3.,..()/....:,1977.125 .

This paper describes a synchronous state of the phonetic system of modern English dialects,whichisdirectlycausedbythespecifichistoricaldevelopmentinaparticularareal, andmutualcontactsofdialects,theinfluenceoflinguisticpatternsthelanguageofwinnersto thelanguageofdefeatedorlackofinfluence .

-15..۠ɠ

   

,ȠȠ۠  ̠̠ ,,,.  ,. .

:,...,, ..,ࠖ. ࠖ , ,,. , , (),..[1,.119] .

廠:,. ,,.   , .

, . ,,, ,,, , ,[2,.200] .

ࠖ . ⠫廠 .

堖,砫蠫,,黠.2 .

. , .  ,,, .

.

, , ,.,,, ,,,, .

  ,,-,..- XIX, XII,,,,,.XVI, 컠, ,,,[3,.422] .

,, , .XX,1945. :, .

,., ࠖ . , , , ,(). 蠖 , [4,.105] .

-17..۠ɠ , , . , , ,, . , , - , , . .,,,, -,- .

, :. , ,,:E-Mail,,,[4,.40] .

Ѡ廠 廠.ʠ, ,,. .

軠, ,.-,, :

1. :Apartment,Lift,Center .

2. , : Know- how, Service, Standard, Equipment .

3.:Disk,Camera,Flash,Shutter .

4.,:Aids,BodyLotion,relaxants,Make-up .

5.:Bit,CD-Rom,Hacker,editieren,Computer .

6.,,,:Bestseller,Lovestory, Promoter .

7.:Bar,Chips,Cream,grillen,Fastfood .

8.:Greenpeace,Smog,Letter .

9.,:Cross,Jogging,Team,dribbeln .

10.,:Handy,Hotline,E-Mail,Internet .

- . 廠 .2 , . ,-. , Cover ,,[3,.423] .

,, .,. ,, , : Modemacher, Medienmacher,Theatermacher[5,.85] .

 , , . , , ,.Ƞ,- .

1. Krysin, L. P. ʠ 廠 /L.P.Krysin///E.A.Zemskaja, D.N.Smelev.., 1965..117134 .

2. Jelitte, H. ʠ /HerbertJelitte,NinaSchindler//Jelitte,Herbert;Sobieroj,Margot:Deutschrussische Sprach-, Literatur- und Kulturbeziehungen im 20. Jahrhundert, Frankfurt am Main, 1996.S.191209 .

3. Kohls, S. ZurTypologie russischer Lehnprgungen im Deutschen/ Siegfried Kohls // Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humbolt-Universitt zu Berlin. Gesellscha fts- u nd sprachwissenschaftliche Reihe 28, 1969. S. 421 424 .

4.,.A../.A.. .,1986.138 .

5. Bielfeld, H. H. Die Wege der Verbreitung slawischer im Deutschen nach ihrer Entlehnungen/ Hans Holm Bielfeld // Muttersprache. 1967. S. 80 95 .

The article deals with a linguistic phenomenon of word-borrowing, means by which suchborrowingsappearinthelanguage,thecausesofsuchborrowingsandtheirtypes.Dueto globalization, the trend towards integration in the modern world leads to the fact that the languages of different countries reveal more and more common features. Modern German languageprovestohavenumerousborrowingsandtherebycanbeagoodexampletoillustrate this phenomenon .

-19..۠ɠ

   

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,-,,, / .

, -..,.,, .

-

-20.2 . , . , ,. ,-,, .

,, /, .

, , .

,. ࠫ,໠ ,((to)compromise, toconcede,concession,(to)trade,(to)treaty,(to)bargain,todobusiness,to gointobusiness,(to)deal)., ࠫ,(okay,all right, yes, sure, well, fine, excellent, good, lets, goody; won (her back), guarantee,putwords(inhermouth),promise,negotiate,letsgo) .

, (to) compromise, to concede,concession,, -., , .

-, , . ,, ,[1,c.48] .

 ,: , , , , - .

-21..۠ɠ , (to)compromise,toconcede, concession,,-[1,c.50] .

, . , , ,,,. , , -[2,c.107] .

, ,, ,.,,, - . ʠ ,,, ,,[3,c.27] .

, ,. , , .  [4,c.34] .

,,. - , , .

 , -

-22.2 . , -,. . ,;

,, .

1. , . . : 䠖 ( )/ . . // .

.2009.2. C.4750 .

2.,../. ..: ,1999.439 .

3.,..- (- ): . .... - .

/..;. .-.,1999.32 .

4.Hall,E.T.BeyondCulture/E.T.Hall.GardenCity,NY:AnchorPress,1976.256p .

The cultural peculiarity of expressing compromise in the English language in monoandinterculturalcommunicationisdiscussedinthearticle .

   

- . Š , , Š,. - .

, -

-23..۠ɠ ().- , .

, , . , , , 蠖 , .

Š ,:껠蠫., ,꠫,,,,,.,,. ,,- Aal,Elster,Rabe,ElsterRabe,:glattwieeinAalsein,,sichwindenwieeinAal, schwarzwieeinRabe,-,stehlen wieeineElster/wieeinRabe,,, ,gefrigwieeinRabe/wieeineElster .

Š ,:reden,wieeinem derSchnabelgewachsenist; (,),sanftwieeineTaube ,,geduldigwieeinSchaf ,sanftwieeinSchaf.Schaf, ,,:dummwie einSchaf.ࠖ ,Š-geduldig sanft .

Š Hund/Mops / Fisch .

Fisch , , , , : kalt wie ein Fisch();munter/frhlich/lebhaftwie einFischimWasser//.  kaltwieeineHundeschnauze,; , Š .

-24.2 : , , , (:brllen/schreienwieeineangestocheneSau/wieeinangestochenes Schwein/wieeinStier,sichrgernwieeinMops ,wtendwieeinangeschossenerEber.,wievomwildenAffengebissensein;

.,plattseinwieeineFlunder ,heulenwieeinSchlosshund)(:wieeinLamm,daszurSchlachtbankgefhrt wird,,.., , , ,).,,..ŠwiederMops imPaletot. .

 Š-젫廠蠫,. Š. : sich aufblasen wie ein Frosch , einherstolzieren/ umherstolzieren wie der Hahn auf dem Mist/ wie ein geblhterPfau,,;,wieeinPfau(ein)Radschlagen,sichwieeinPfauspreizen ,, . Š ,- .

,.., ,, , , , , (, ), .

, ,/ , .. , . ,Š ,:Ochs,,Kuh,Gans ,Katze,Hase,:schielenwieeineGans,wenn esdonnert,sichanstellenwiederOchsbeimSeiltanzen , dastehenwie derOchs am/vorm Berg/wie die KuhvormneuenTor/wiedieKuh,wennesdonnert ;,einGesichtmachenwieeineGans,wennes

-25..۠ɠ donnert,einGesichtmachenwiedieKatze,wenn es donnert ,ein Gesichtmachen/ aussehen, als htteneinemdieHhnerdasBrotweggefressen .

Š젫軠,,,,, - , ,,, ,,:vonetwas sovielverstehenwiederHahnvomEierlegen/wiedieKuhvomRadfahren/wie dieKuhvomSonntag/wiedieKuhvomSchachspielen -,.Š . , Š ein Gedchtniswieein(indischer)Elefanthaben.() .

Š軠,,, .

.,:essenwieeinSpatz ,hungrigwieeinWolfsein,gefrig wieein Rabesein , schlafen wie ein Br/ ein Dachs/einMurmeltier/eineRatte/einRatz,schnarchen wieeinBr;;vonjemandem/etwasangezogenwerdenwiedieMottenvomLicht, .

廠 :wieeingeprgelterHund., wieein begossenerPudel . .Š::frierenwieeinHund;,:wieeingeprgelterHund.;,:wieeinAffeaufdemSchleifsteinsitzen .

(.. ),sichfhlenwieeinFischaufdemTrockenen ;:wieeinHundgehetztsein ;:sich(wohl)fhlenwieeinFischimWasser/ wiedieMadeimSpeck .

Š젫廠,. ,:mitjemandemumgehenwiedieSaumit demBettelsack,jemandenanfahrenwiedieSaudenBettelsack --;-,wieeinegesengte Sau,,wieeinSchweinausdemStallfortlaufen,wiedie Schweine vom Troge aufstehen , . Sau ,,, .-

-26.2 ,:jemandenwieeinenHundbehandeln,jemandenwieeinStckViehbehandeln - .

,Š-젫껠 , , , , ,,.,.,, .

A complex linguistic research of comparative phraseological units in the German languageisgiveninthearticle.The analysisofcomparisonswiththeanimalisticcomponent on the basis of the cognitive and linguo-culturological approaches was conducted. The key lexemesarecultural-labeledcomponents,whichpromoterevealingthenationalworldoutlook .

   

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- . ,, . - - .

.,,. ., , - , . - ,. ,,- :,,,

-27..۠ɠ .- .

-,. :

1):Gut,dassichdichhabe!

2):nett, herrlich..;

3):Dassdugekommenbist!

4) ,, ,:Groartig,wiedassgeklappthatte!

, . . 񠖠 ,,.-, , .   [2,c.592] .

. ( ) , . .

dass,wiewas, ., -.:Klar,dassduVater wirst!DassduVaterwirst,istklar! -., . , wie::Wie hbsch,dasssogarerweitertanzenmchte!

-, ,,:

-28.2 Kompliziert,dassichmichselbstmanchmalverirre .

Sogut,wieichIhrenVatergekannthabe,erklrteMyles .

Soselten,dassmaneinsolchesPaarHndezusehenbekommt .

Wieherrlich,dassesnochLeutegibt,dieeinenButlerhaben,dachte Paula,diedemgutenLebendurchausnichtabgeneigtwar,aufdaseines TagesdankMylesberuflicherKarrierehoffte[3] .

.   :nichtkein. . nicht() dass , :Nicht,dassduimKindergartenweinst!,,,, als ob. , : Als ob du dieses Buchgelesenhast!.[1,c.112] .

nichtkeinalsob ,:AlsoberkeineFahrkartehat!Alsobsiedasnichtgemachthat![3] .

:, .

, .

ob()dass()..wenn,alsob,alswenn, bevor,damit,ehe .

,,.ࠫ,, . .

 dass,-

-29..۠ɠ :DassdubaldzuHausebist!Dassdudochdiese verrckteGeschichtenichtglaubst!Dasswirjetztreichsindundeinanderes Leben haben werden! Dass du beschlossen hast, sich wieder mit dem Klavierspielenzubeschftigen!  . . :

,,...(!) .

, .- :,, . -: , .

1. , . . / . .. .: ,1991.192 .

2.,../....:

, 1990.682 .

3. Steward, F. ZumTeufel mit dem Teufel/ F.Steward. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer TaschenbuchVerlag GmbH, 1991. 160 s .

The article presents a linguistic research of emotional-evaluative pseudosubordinate sentences inthe modern German language.The analysis of pseudosubordinatesentences as types of complex sentences including the emotional-evaluative meaning as a component of theircontent structureiscarried out.Structural andsemanticcriteriaoftransmissionofthe emotional-evaluativemeaninginthesesentenceswereanalyzed .

   

. , ,. c .

.,

   

, , , ,頖, .

(, , ) .

,, .   ,. ,󠖠,,, .

.  , .,sichirrensich tuschen,formierenbilden,LandStaat,sichzankensichstreiten,lustig heiter,berhmtbekannt... ,, ,, , , . , , , , :

Wirtschaftkonomie,TanzabendParty,KehrreimRefrain,exportieren ausfhren,besttigenratifizieren[2] .

... [1,.126].  ,,- , .

, ,. , , , .., ,. 

-31..۠ɠ ,,. , .

,, .,,. , , .

, ,,.,, .,,.,,.  .-,. ,:

Interessant: anregend, ansprechend, anziehend, attraktiv, aufschlussreich,ausgefallen,auergewhnlich,auerordentlich,beflgelnd, belehrend, einnehmend, eintrglich, entwaffnend, erstaunlich, ertragreich, gewinnbringend, gro, informativ, lohnend, lukrativ, reizvoll, rentabel, ungewhnlich,unterhaltsam,vielsagend,wissenswert,berraschend .

,,,,, .,, .

,,,, .

,-, .

,. , , ..

-32.2 .,DeutschesWortschatz-Lexikon[2]armc:

arm(zuwenig):rmlich,bedrftig,beengt,beschrnkt,besitzlos,brotlos, elend, heruntergekommen, hilfsbedrftig, hungrig, mittellos, Not leidend, schbig,unversorgt,verarmt;

arm (Unglck): aufgeschmissen, bedauernswert, beklagenswert, betroffen,elend,elendiglich,erledigt,fatal,freudlos,geliefert,getroffen,Mitleid erregend,ruiniert,unglcklich,verloren;

arm(unwichtig):abgenutzt,albern,armselig,bedauernswert,dnn,eitel, elend, erbrmlich, heruntergekommen, jmmerlich, klglich, kmmerlich, lcherlich,leer,mager,miserabel,nichterwhnenswert;

arm (Unlust empfinden): armselig, bedauernswert, bedroht, bemitleidenswert,deprimiert,dster,elegisch,elend, erbrmlich,erbittert, ergreifend,erregt,freudlos,gedrckt,hilflos,melancholisch,missvergngt, mutlos;

arm(missfallen,hsslich):rmlich,amorph,drr,eckig,garstig,gemein, gering,gewhnlich,grobkrnig,hsslich,hager,hlzern,kurzunddick,plump, rau,reizlos,roh,schwerfllig;

arm(Schwche):abgeschmackt,rmlich,alltglich,ausdruckslos,banal, blass, einfrmig, eintnig, fade, flchtig, gedankenlos, kalt, kraftlos,

kmmerlich,lppisch,langweilig,leer,schwach:

arm(Armut):abgebrannt,abgerissen,arbeitslos,bedrftig,besitzlos, blank,brotlos, erwerbslos,heruntergekommen,mittellos, schbig, schlecht weggekommen,zerlumpt;

arm(Verlust):besitzlos .

,., .,,,., . .,⠖ .

, , . ,.c .

-33..۠ɠ 1.,...../....:,1988.306 .

2.DeutschesWortschatz-Lexikon//DeutscherWortschatz[Electronicresource].Leipzig, 1998 2012. Mode of access: http://wortschatz.uni-leipzig.de. Date ofaccess: 12.01.2012 .

InthearticlefeaturesofsynonymicsequencesintheGermanlanguageareanalyzedon the basis of adjectives. The specific relationship of synonymous lexical-semantic variants of adjectives was considered .

   

SUB-NEUTRALSTRATUMOFWORDSASONEOFTHEMOST

IMPORTANTINSTYLISTICLEXICOLOGY

. .

Allthewordsofanygivenlanguagecanbedividedintothreegroups .

Thesegroupsdifferfromeachotherbecauseofdifferentspheresoftheiruse .

Thewordsthataresignificantineverymomentofcommunicationcanhardly induceanydefiniteassociations.Ontheotherhand,wordsthatareusedin particular spheresof linguistic intercommunication havea certain stylistic colouring .

Indispensablewordsarestylisticallyneutral.Wordsofspecialspheres arestylisticallycoloured.Thisisthemaindivisionofwordsfromthestylistic viewpoint[1,c.22].Consequently,allthewordscanbedividedintoneutral andnon-neutral.Non-neutralwordsatthesametimecanbedividedintosuperneutral(solemnwords,poeticwords,archaisms,bookishwords,foreign words,etc.)andsub-neutralwords .

Amongthesub-neutralwordsthefollowinggroupsaredistinguished:

colloquialwords;

jargonwordsandslang;

vulgarwords;

dialectwords .

Acolloquialismisalinguisticphrasethatischaracteristicoforonly appropriateforcasual,ordinary,familiar,and/orinformalwrittenorspoken conversation,ratherthanforformal speechandstandardwriting.Some examplesofinformalcolloquialismscanincludewords(suchasy'allor gonna or wanna), phrases (such as ain't nothin'and graveyard dead), or sometimes evenan entire aphorism (There's more than one waytoskinacat) .

-34.2 Colloquialismsareoftenusedprimarilywithinalimitedgeographical area,knownbylinguiststospreadthroughnormalconversationalinteraction ofalanguage[2] .

Jargonwordsareusuallyusedbylimitedgroupsofpeoplethatareunited eitherprofessionallyorsocially.Professionalismsorprofessionaljargonsare words which are used by people in their professional activity: tin-fish (=submarine);block-buster(=abombinmilitaryuse);apiper(=aspecialist decoratingcakeswithcreamandusingapipe)[3,c.16-17].Socialjargonsare alwaysusedbydifferentgroupsofpeoplewithcommoninterests(e.g.music fans,footballfans,etc.).Thethievesorcriminalsjargon(cant)canalsobea variant ofsocial jargons (a game any modeof robbery; to click to hit;

bandog,busnapper,hamlet,harmanpoliceofficer) .

Slangisthepartofthevocabularymadebycommonlyunderstoodand widelyusedwordsandexpressionsofhumorouskind[1,c.25-26].Slangis oftentobefoundinareasofthelexiconthatrefertothingsconsideredtaboo.It isalsousedtoidentifywithone'speers.Slangcanberegionalinthatitisused onlyinaparticularterritory,butslangtermsareoftenparticulartoacertain subculture,suchasmusicorvideogaming[4].SeeexamplesofgeneralBritish slang:crackers(=crazy);theyeardot(=longago);mac(~Scotsman);mug (=fool);nipper(=youngchild);ratted(=drunk) .

Some examples of general American slang: buddy (= fellow); buck (=dollar);cabbage(=money);jerk(=stupidperson);joker(=man);glued (= arrested);givesmb.wings(= teachto use drugs);likea milliondollars (=verygood);smash(=adrink)[3,c.16] .

Vulgar words make up a group of words which are considered to be offensiveforpoliteuse.Inreallifevulgar wordshelpto expressemotions, emotiveandexpressiveassessmentoftheobjectspokenabout.Whenusedin worksofliteraturetheyperformthefunctionofcharacterization[1,c.26-27] .

Very often with the course of time when repeated constantly many vulgarisms lose their emotive impact. Nowadays such words as bloody, damned,tohellandsoonarenotbannedbythemodernpermissivesociety .

Thetermdialectisappliedmostoftentoregionalspeechpatterns,buta dialectmayalsobedefinedbyotherfactors,suchassocialclass.Adialectthat isassociatedwithaparticularsocialclasscanbetermedasociolect;aregional dialectmaybetermedaregiolectortopolect[5] .

Dialectwordscanhelptoidentifythelocationofpeoplewhousethem .

There are four major dialectal varieties in Great Britain: Lowland Scotch, Northern,Central(Midland)andSouthern.Therearethreemajordialectal varietiesinthe USA: Midwestern (Central),Southern, NewEngland.This classificationdoesntincludelotsofminorlocaldialectswhichdiffereitheron thephoneticlevelorthelexicalone .

Eachofthementionedgroupsisveryimportantforlinguistsaswellas thewholestratumofsub-neutralwordsisofgreatvalueforlinguistics .

-35..۠ɠ 1.,..=AManualofEnglish

Stylistics: / . . , . . , . . . .: :

ꠖ,2007.101 .

2. Wikipedia [Electronic resource]/ Colloquialism. 2010. Mode of access: http:// en.wikipedia.org. Date of access: 10.09.2010 .

3., .. =EnglishStylistics: /... 3-..:-,2008.67 .

4. Wikipedia [Electronic resource]/ Slang. 20 10. Mode of a ccess: http:// en.wikipedia.org. Date of access: 10.09.2010 .

5. Wikipedia [Electronic resource]/ Dialect. 2010. Mode of access: http:// en.wikipedia.org. Date of access: 11.09.2010 .

The articleis about differentgroups of words of the English language. Indispensable wordsarestylisticallyneutral.Wordsofspecialspheresarestylisticallycoloured(non-neutral) .

Thereisadetaileddescriptionofnon-neutralwords .

   

۠ɠӠȠ

ߠ ̠ ໠ (). 堫, .

[1, . 32], . -, .

, .-[2, .56].[3] -젫,51:

weather,wind,temperature,tempest,tornado,thunder,breeze,cold,cloud,dew, fog,gale,hurricane,hail,heat,haze,lightning,mist,frost,rain,rainbow,shower, squall,storm,sun,snow,slush,warmth,smog,precipitate,cool,icicle,hoar,mud, sky,chill,moon,star,ripple,wave,calm,ground,atmosphere,water,air,climate, season,drought,earthquake,torrent,flood,堫,920 .

-36.2 ,,ࠖ. , ,, [4,.50], ,rain,snow.,[4,.50],,windblows,sunshines.頖, , , umbrella rain, planesky,hairbreeze,skisnow,sledgesnow,roofrain,rideweather, lighthousefog,holidaysweather,beachwave .

, ,. ,,-,. ,, . - -//,-,- -, - -/,--. ,, , ,-,,,- .

໠, , ,, still calm, clay mud, clarts mud, detached calm, cascadetorrent. , , ,,farewellhail,disturbance calm,moodycool,anxiouscalm .

 堫໠-., ,weather,, : rain, snow,fog,mist,wind,storm,frost,thunder.windbreeze,gale/s,hurricane/s,tempest,whirwind,

-37..۠ɠ rain sprinkle, drizzle, downfall. , , , autumn,spring,summeryear,May,November month .

, , (),,,cool,strike.,, :. ,coldweathertwinklestar, .

: R (.) + S (.), , awfulweather,whitesnow,balmybreeze,brightstar;S(.)+R(.), ,windblow(s),rainpour(s),stormbreak(s),iciclehang(s);R(.) +S(.),,battle(with)storm,gaze(at)star,throwmud,stare (at)sun;R(.)+S(.),,abovesky,earlydew;R(.)+S(.),itstorm(s);R(.)+S(.),,fourseason(s);

S (.) + R (.), , weatherman, season ticket, lightning conductor,snowball,sunset.R(.)+S(.)S(.)+R(.) .

   

[4,.88],,.,, wind,,(breeze,gale,hurricane) ,(rain,weather,hail,snow), sail,willow,sea,trees,wood,,,,.2 .,, , , ,(mackintoshstorm, bootsmud),- (tap water, blanket warmth, bed warmth), , (earthquake volcano),,, , , (airbreathe) .

,堫໠ , 蠖 ,80%.,,.-,,,.,, , ໠ , . (, , , , , , ),.,, .

1.,../..// :.. .;.. ...., 2000.320 .

2.,..:

/. .. . :-, 2001. 320 .

3. The Edinburgh WordAssociation Thesaurus (EAT) [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http:// www.eat.rl.ac.uk. Date of access: 12.01.2012 .

4.,.. :

/. . . ,1974.107 .

ThearticleisdevotedtothestudyingofanassociativefieldWeatherapplyingthefree wordassociationtest(onthebasisofTheEdinburghWordAssociationThesaurus).Theanalysis detectstypesofrelationsbetweenstimuliandresponsesintheassociativefieldWeatherthat maybehelpfulforthestudyingofwordmeaning .

-39..۠ɠ

   

ߠ

ՠɠ

;, .

堖[1,.150], . ,,6070-,,80-29,5%⻠[2,.27] .

(49%), ,-, , [3,.1819],,-,..., ()ࠫ , ꠫黠[4,.113] .

,,(堖 ),(堖 , )( )[5]. : ,, [6,.67].,,,,,,.,,bread-room,gun-room, paint-room,plate-room,powder-room,sail-room,tun-room, ( ࠖ room), .

.2 , :

,, , .(120 [7]),, . , ,,,, .

,:

1..,110(92%).  :

1)N+N.,, (-), .. : yarn-house , ammunition-house ,beer-cellar , blood-bank,bow-case,(),hay-house,ice-farm ,meat-ambry,,needlecase,powder-house,woodshed ,salt-box..,, :( ) (house , room , cellar,yard,case,,,box,shed,,vault,,bag,loft ,pit,pot,,farm,barn, ),() , .

:storehouse,store-room ; .

  :,-

-41..۠ɠ :hammer-pond(hammer,pond)apondin whichwaterfordrivingahammer-millisstored(, ); pageant-house (pageant)thehouseinwhichthestageandpropertiesforthe play were kept ( ).  . ..,...[6,.67].  ; , .

, , .,, ,,(堠):hay-mowhay-mow , .

Ѡ ,:gasometer,gasometer . gasometer oilometer() .

gasometeroilometer , ,,..,⠫-o-[2,.28];

2)N+N-er.,,(-), .. .  : gas-holder , , storeholder ;.  -er[2,.28];

3)ParticipialAdj.+N.:knitting-caseacaseforkeepingknitting-needlesin().(),., ໠[2,.28].

-42.2 , .

2.: . :pitcher-house[N+N],(pitchers).Tap-room[N+ N](tap,)aroominatavern,etc.,inwhichliquorsare keptontap(,) , .,,軠[6,.67],, .

3..:flench-gut,flens-gut[V+N](flench,gut ),, .in-box[Adv.+N] 钠in-tray :. in(.out-tray : ), in-box .

4. - . - :walk-in[V+Adv.] awalk-inclosetorcold-storageroom(, ),.. walk-inofa storagearea: largeenoughtowalkinto ( :,) .

5. . :winterstall[N+N] .

6. . :warehouse-room[N+N](warehouse) . ,򠖠 .

-43..۠ɠ , N + N 젖.,, :.-, ., :, .

1.,../...:

. ., 1992.229 .

2.,../....:.., 1989.124 .

3.,../...:

..,1985.157 .

4.,..()/....:, 1977.168 .

5. , . . / . . // :III. .,,561989./..-;

..(..)[.].,1990..312 .

6. , . . . / ... .:, 1981.200 .

7.OxfordEnglishDictionary:SecondEdition,onCD-ROM(v.4.0)/T.J.Benbow(project director),A. M.Hughes(senior editor). Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press, 2009 .

ThearticledealswiththeanalysisofEnglishcompositedepositorydenominations;the wordsanalysedhavebeengroupedinaccordancewithdenominationprinciples,derivational modelshavebeenrevealedwithineachgroup .

   

SPANGLISHʠŠɠ

- .

,,

   

.  .

, ...,, [1,.9697] .

, ,2008.,305 45 , .. [2]. .

, espanglishespangls, Spanglish,ChicanoEnglishMockSpanish[6] .

Πࠫ.,,, , . :, ,XXI,,,,, , , ,,໠..[6] .

,,.,2001..-,렫 , , , ,[4] .

, ,,;,linguafranca,,,.-

-45..۠ɠ . , (,,,.),. , 帠 [5] .

,堖.,, ,[6].,,, ,. ,.,Cmo puedoayudarte?,HowcanIhelp you?, , Qudesea?[7] .

 Spanglish-EnglishSpanglish-Espaol, ໠ .

⠫໠.Π ꠫2004. () , .

໠ .. , ,..,toring ringar,mering,porqunomeringaste?[8,.184] .

젫 -. 젫컠 :,,. .

,.. [1,.9295],:

-46.2 1., . , 廠aplicacin(application) 廠solicitud;carpeta(carpet)蠫 tapiz;correr por(torunfor)蠫

presentarlacandidatura;deliverar(todeliver)蠫enviar.,congestin ( congestion) ໠ atascamiento;

convencional(conventional)蠫黠habitual;doble ( double) ໠ suplente del actor;

elevador(elevator)蠫ascensor;evento(event) 蠫廠acontecimiento .

2.,,, club,jersey,reactor,transistor., XIXՠ .

3. , . ,젫廠bildin(building), boila(boiler),brecas(breaks),buche(bush),craca(cracker),cuora (quarter),guachimn(watchman),jaifai(hi-fi),jaigey(highway), jamberga( hamburger),londri (laundry), trbol( trouble).ʠ , ,beisbol(baseball),bistec(beefsteak),bloc(block), boicot(boycott),bngalo(bungalow),eslogan(slogan),esmoquin( smoking),estrs(stress),ftbol(football),gol(goal),lder(leader), mitin(meeting),tnel(tunnel),vagn(wagon).,: , whiskey gisqui,folklorefolclor,penaltypenalti,sweatersuter .

4.,,, ,., 廠chatear(tochat),chopear(toshop), culear (to cool), enjoyar (to enjoy), estorma ( storm), frisar ( to freeze), grocera (grocery), liquear (to leak), lonchear (to lunch), marqueta(market),parquear(topark),plomero(plumber),printear (toprint),rufo(roof),saramambiche(sonofabitch),taipear(to type),troca(truck),vacunar(tovacuum),yarda(yard).ʠ astronauta(astronaut),balasto(ballast),boicotear(toboycott),

-47..۠ɠ carro(car),chequear(tocheck),ciberntica(cybernetics),computadora (computer),dictfono(dictophone),dogo(dog),filme(film),filmar (tofilm),gongo(gong),hamburguesa(hamburger),helicptero( helicopter), reporte ( report), sndrome ( syndrome), supersnico ( supersonic),tecncrata(technocrat),tranva(tramway),turista(tourist) .

5.,,bite,briefing,bestseller,bluff,boom, camping,chat,clip,cocktail,detective,e-mail,hit,hobby,hockey,hotdog, internet,jazz,jazz-band,jeans,jeep,kit,knock-out,know-how,match,offset, offshore,offside,online,penalty,rap,record,rock,show,stock,sandwich, superstar,sweater,ticket,videocassette,water-polo,weekend,western,whisky, cowboy,gangster,pudding,sheriff..,,, .

6.,jugrselafro( toplayitcool),llamarporatrs(tocallback),perrocaliente(hotdog), viajeredondo(roundtrip) .

, - , :

1.(),., ,-,:

laproblema,lasistema,laidioma;:tenetiene,movemueve,pudipudo .

2.(),.. .,servicioderegistracindeautos( ) registracin, matriculacin registration. asiguranzas$29almes($29)asiguranzas segurosassurances.VoyavacunarlacarpetaImgoingtovacuum thecarpet(ߠ),vacunar,carpeta .

3. (),.. . , Estamos comofifteenyearsaqu(Hemosestadocomoquinceaosaqu. )PresentedeIndicativoPretritoPerfectodeIndicativo .

4.,..,.:Yougotamanchaonyourcamisa Tienesunamanchaentucamisa(Ӡ).

-48.2 :incometaxserviceabiertotodoelaoservicio delimpuestosobrelarentaabiertotodoelao( ),nmerounomarketmercadonmerouno( )[9] .

USA today92001.IfyoudontspeakSpanish,youmightbeleftbehind .

(-,.)  ,,, ,- , : [4] .

, . , ,,, ... . ,,,Ȼ[3] .

,, ,,:, ., ( ,)[3] .

1.,../....: .

., 1994.230 .

2. United States Census Bureau [ ]. Latest news releases. 28.08.2008. : http:// www.census.gov/main/popclock.html. :

30.01.2012 .

3.MorenoFernndez,F.Espanglish:lacasadecienpuertas[].CVC, Madrid, 2004. : http://www.cervantes.es/v_cile. : 30.01.2012 .

4.GarridoMedina,J.HispanoyespaolenEstadosUnidos[].II

Congreso Internacional de la Lengua Espaola.Valladolid, Espaa, 2001. :

http://www.cervantes.es/congresos-delalengua.es/default.htm. : 30.01.2012 .

5.BetanzosPalacios,O.ElespaolenEstadosUnidos:problemasylogros[ ]. II CongresoInternacional de la Lengua Espaola.Valladolid, Espaa, 2001. :http://www.cervantes.es/congresosdelalengua.es/default.htm.:30.01.2012 .

6.Stavans,I.Impulsordelspanglishdesafaaprofesores,traductoresylingistas.Second Seminaron theTransatlanticDimensionof theSpanishLanguage. NuevaYork,2001. : http://www.casadellibro.com/palabra. : 30.01.2012 .

-49..۠ɠ 7. Gonzlez Echeverra, R. Hablar spanglish es devaluar el espaol [ ].Clarn,3.03.2004.:http://www.casadellibro.com/palabra.html. : 30.01.2012 .

8.,.. / . . ..: , 2007.277 .

9. Silva-Corvaln, C.Aspectos lingsticos del espaol en LosAngeles [ ].IICogreso InternacionaldelaLenguaEspaola.Valladolid,Espaa, 2001. : http://www.cervantes.es/congresosdelalengua.es/default.htm. :

30.01.2012 .

ThesocialphenomenonofSpanglish,whichisaresultoflanguageandculturaldiversity intheUnitedStates,isdescribedinthearticle .

   

ŠȠՠ

,ՠ 

Ƞɠ

. . .ࠫ .

. ,,., .

[1,2] ,젖. ( ),()(,). .(), ,:1);2),[3,.496] .

.

-50.2 ,. :1),;2),;3), ., .

. ,,,, .. , , .

:.  . -,. [4,.186].  .

.ࠫ

,,:1)-;2) -;3) ;4) ;5) -. 128. ,, .

, ,, , .

Thisisme.HoldenCaulfield.LemmespeakaSally,please.Sally's asleep.ThisisSally'sgrandmother.Whyareyoucallingatthishour,Holden?

Doyouknowwhattimeitis?

Doyouknowwhattimeitis?,, .

,,,. ,Doyou feellike dancing?

.,Letsgodancing .

-51..۠ɠ  72, .,,:1);2);3);4);5) ;6);7);8);9). .

WhatdidDr.Thurmersaytoyou,boy?Iunderstandyouhadquitea littlechat.Yes,wedid.Wereallydid.Iwasinhisofficeforaroundtwo hours,Iguess .

堫Iunderstandyouhadquitealittlechat , .

.

Howsyourgrippe,sir?Mboy,ifIfeltanybetterIdhavetosend foradoctor,oldSpensersaid .

,, .

, .

Hecameoverandstoodrightinmylight.Hey,Isaid.I'vereadthis samesentenceabouttwentytimessinceyoucamein .

, , .

, .,- .

Doyouwanttogetatableinsideandhaveadrinkorsomething?

Isaidtoherfinally.Thatsthemostmarvelousideayouvehadallday, shesaid.Shewaskillingherself.Itwasbrutal.Ireallyfeltsorryforher .

Do you want to get a table inside and have a drink or something? . .Ѡ, .

  , , ,() ().ʠ,ࠫThatsthemostmarvelous ideayouvehadallday . , , , .,.  , ,

-52.2 , .

,, .

Heshovedmybookbackwithhishandsothathecouldseethenameof it.Anygood?hesaid.ThissentenceI'mreadingisterrific .

, .

ࠫThissentenceI'mreadingisterrific, - . ,,, .

 ,,,,. , ., ( ), ,蠫軠,, .

.,,:Youdidn'tknowhim.Ifyou'd knownhim,you'dknowwhatImean.,,., , .

.

Sally?Youwantmetrimmatreeforya?Youwantmeto?Huh?

堫Youwantmetrimmatreeforya?, ,:Iwanttotrimafirtreewithyou.MayIcometoyou? . , .

,. , . :,,,

-53..۠ɠ , . .,,. .

1.Austin,J.L.HowtoDoThingswithWords/J.L.Austin//TheDiscourseReader/Ed .

byA.Jaworski,N.Coupland.Routlege, 2002. P. 6375 .

2.Searle,J.R.AClassificationofIllocutionaryActs/J.L.Searle//LanguageinSociety. Vol.5.No.1.1976.P.123 .

3.McGowan,M.K.OnIndirectSpeechActsandLinguisticCommunication:AResponse to Bertolet/ M. K. McGowa n [Electronic resource]. Mode of a ccess: http:// journals.cambridge.org. Date ofaccess: 17.02.2012 .

4.Asher,N.IndirectSpeechActs/ N.Asher,A.Lascarides//Synthese.Vol.128.No .

1/2, Pragmatics. Springer,2001.P. 183228 .

5.Salinger,J.TheCatcherintheRye/J.Salinger..:,,2006. 288 .

Thepaperdealswiththeproblemofindirectspeechactsinadialogic speech.Onthe basis of analysis the conclusion about the difference between interrogative and affirmative indirectspeechactsismade.Theauthorinvestigatesthefunctionsofindirectspeechactsand thefrequencyoftheiruseinthenovelTheCatcherintheRyebyJ.Salinger .

   

-ŠȠ

Ƞ  -

. . . - .- .

, . , , .

-, 90%,,. .,-

-54.2 , .

.  .

.,,(-),,,, .

() , [2, . 33].   .

, . :( /),,,, [5,.7] .

-( 1)GEOWersinddieAmerikaner?2008.7..188;2)GEOUnser neuerPlanet2008.9..196;3)GEODerKlugeKonsum2008. 12..222),,-:(WasserkraftwerkAnlagezurUmwandlung derEnergieflieendenoderstrzendenWassersinelekt.Energie),:,,(PhnomendasErscheinende,der sinnl.Erfassungunmittelbarzugnglich), (Proton Elementarteilchen mit einer positivenElementarladung;zus.mitdemNeutronBausteinderAtomkerne), (Elektrofahrzeuge durch Elektromotorangetriebene,nichtschienengebundeneFahrzeuge) .

, .  -- .

 - () (): 堖 Decke,Kamm,Maske;堖 Decke+el=Deckel,Maske+Form=Maskenform

-55..۠ɠ ,Kamm+Band=Kammband,Decke+ Inrichtung=Deckeinrichtung .

- ,,,, , 堖 , :abgehngte Decke,nukleare Energie. , ,. - : Endzwischenberhitzer, Goldfadenspitzendiode .

-:

1),:

)(KunstfrKunst);

)(dieerstePerson,diezweite Lautverschiebung);

) (erweiterte Attribut , substantivierteAdjektiv;

2):

) (einenVertrag schlieen ,einenBedarfdecken) .

, - , , , , . ,.,,.(.allegro .,.vivace.).(:,) .

, , - , 720,-, . -41,6%,()25%,20,8%,12,5% .

 ,-

   

-,- .

1. , . . / .. . .: ,1993.307 .

2.,../...:, 1989.321 .

Thearticledealswiththetermasasubjectofgeneralterminologytheory.Thedefinition of a term isgiven. The place of theterm in the lexical systemof language is statedand the correlationoftermsandwordsingeneraluseisdetermined.Germantechnicalscientifictexts areanalyzed.Lexicalsemanticandgrammaticalfeaturesoftermsarerevealed .

   

-ߠܻ

 ̠:ɠ - . .

.,-.,, ,. , , .

,: , 堖 ,蠖 . .

-57..۠ɠ ,,,. , .,,, . - , ,.  .

,.. ,,. .

,,,... ,, .

  .

, ..:,, , - .

(,):

aumbryambry;

escritoirescritoire .

. Π ambry , ࠫaumbry, ,,,.escritoire,ࠫe ,.. , (scritoire) .

(,):

buffet['bUfe]['bft];

dinette[da'net][d'net] .

:, ,-

-58.2 .,,堖.:,,,. [o:][oe],(-oor),,堫floor蠫door .

(,

c):

directorschairdirectorchair;

butlerstablebutlertable .

  .,. .

(, ), ,:

1. , : ,:

gate-leggedtablegate-legtable;

boardedchestboardchest;

archeddoorarchdoor

dressingtabledresstable .

2.⠫inged., ., .,:

settledchairsettlingchair;

scriptorscritoire, secretarysecretaire .

, , .

ʠ-, --

-59..۠ɠ ,頖, .,,,-:

curuleseatcurule;

piertablepier;

recliningchairrecliner .

-:

cylinderdeskcylinder-desk;

drumtabledrum-table;

tallboytallboy .

- .

  , .. .:

commodechestofdrawers;

ambrycupboard;

fauteuilfaldstool;

:

armoirewardrobe .

,-. - (52 ). (39 ), (23). (15 ).136 .

   

Thearticleconsiderstheissuesofsynonymyinthelexical-semanticgroupFurniture .

The main emphasis is made on the analysis of absolute synonyms in accordance with the classificationusedintheresearch .

   

ȠߠΠ 

.:, , .

-, .

.

:a) ; ) ;) .

堖. ࠖ (, ,, ), (, ) ( ) .

廠,, , ,. , ., ,,,,.,,,, , , stream,sardine,hi-fi,timetable, to stream ,tosardine;tohi-fi;totimetable. ,,,, ,,, ,,,aholdup,abreakdown,alayout. .

-61..۠ɠ .ࠖ .

, , .

-,,,arms,customs, colours,arm,custom,look.  arms, customs ''蠑 .

arm, custom .,,,.., . . ,tired,devoted,interesting,amusing ..,totire,tomarry. .

ʠ.:a), , ) ,. . ,,,adocumentary film,, . , , an incendiary an incendiary bomb,thefinalsthefinalexaminations,aneditorialaneditorial article..,., , . , dejay (= D.J. = disc jokey), emce (=M.C. = masterof ceremonies),

-62.2 .,. : ,transceiver(=transmitter andreceiver),transistor(=transferandresistor), cute ( execute) in electrocute, medicare ( medical care), polutician(polluteandpolitician),,brunch(breakfastandlunch),smog(smoke andfog),ballute(baloonandparachute).. ( ), .,, . ,,, ,docꠑ,, doctor堑, 帠 , , Doctor of Law, Doctor of Philosophy .

. ,, .

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Vocabularydevelopment ofa languageiscaused byrapid flowof events,progress ofscienceandtechnologyandemergenceofnewconceptsinvariousfieldsofhumanactivity .

It isnecessary to distinguish betweenthe qualitative increase invocabulary by semantic extensionofalreadyexistentwordsandquantitativevocabularyupdateresultedfromnew vocabulary units appearance. There are three basic ways of quantitative vocabulary enrichment:a)derivativewordformation,b)variousnon-modelwaysofwordsformation, c) borrowings .

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cancould:Teacherscanprofitalot from the processes of word formation as a powerful source for students understandingandacquisitionofvocabulary .

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-65..۠ɠ , ,,- .:Studentsshouldalwaysbearinmindthecontextofthe recruitersquestionsthejobinterview .

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Aswehaveclarifiedtherelationshipbetweencontrolandfreedom,we canreadilyreconciletheseemingconflictbetweencontrolandcommunication .

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-67..۠ɠ I always prefer a cognitive, inductive approach, which involves the learnersinanalyzingandexplainingtheuseandformofastructure,because thissupportstheirunderstandingofit .

I have found the following strategies and activities very valuable in encouragingreading .

, ,myour .

Inmyexperience,afavouriteselectionhasbeenaperformanceofachoral poem.Indevisingthistest,wedecidedtousefluencyasourbasiccriterion .

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Usingtheeditingcriterialevelsinthisfinalstep,thepairinspectand evaluatetheirbestcopy .

IdecidedtoreviseToppingsmethodtobettermeetmystudentsneeds .

Thehelperstimulatesideasbyraisingaone-wordquestionwiththewriter .

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1. , . . / . .. : , 2010.240 .

2. , . . - / .. // : [ ]. 2005. : http://www.ltp-studio.ru/ articles/top.pdf. : 10.06.2011 .

3., .. - / . . // ..,1982. .1421 .

Nowadaysalotofattentionispaidtowritingascientificarticleinaforeignlanguage .

Lexical peculiarities ofascientific Englisharticleare inthe centre ofthis article. Themain characteristics are:the use of terms, ofmodal verbs with specific meaning, latent attributes andattributivegroups,verbs-operators,cause-and-effectconjunctionsandlogicalconnectors, fixedexpressions,predominanceofnominativestructures,passive,theusageofthefirstperson insingularandinplural,substituteofadverbswithprepositional-nominalcombinations,lack of interjections .

   

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-71..۠ɠ 廠蠫., , . , , :,,, 軠 .

, ,,-,;,, ,堫廠,[8,.38]. EncyclopediaAmericana,-,, [9,.15] .

頫,, 컠,, , ,.  ,.,,.,蠫㻠,:,, [10,.1011]. ,,,,, .

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-72.2 ໠ , . . , , . , ,, ;.. [13,.49]..,,, [14,.5]. (peer group) [15, .73], , , , .

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1.,..:,():.....-./...,2000. 48 .

2. , . . - / ... .:, 1988.788 .

3.Partridge,E.SlangodayandYasterday/E.Partridge.London:RoutledgeandKegan Paul,1979.180p .

4. Nunnally,Thomas E. Glossing the Folk:A Review of Selected Lexical Research into American Slang andAmericanisms/Thomas E. Nunnally//American Speech:A Quarterly of Linguistic Usage (AS).2001. 76 (2).P.158176 .

5. TheWorld Book Encyclopedia: In 22 v. Chicago: Scott Fetzer Company, 2004. V.17.736 .

6.,..:.../....:..,1986.259 .

7., .. Π堫㻠/..// : . . . .: . . . - . .., 1969..7581 .

8.Mencken,H.L.TheAmericanLanguage/ H.L. Mencken.N.Y.:KNOALFRED-AKNOPF,1992.778p .

-73..۠ɠ 9. Encyclopedia Americn: In 30 v. Danburry Connecticut: Scholastic Library Publishing,Inc.,2004.V. 25.694 .

10. Spears, R.A. NTCs Dictionary ofAmerican Slang and Colloquial Expressions/ R.A. Spears. Chicago: NTC PublishingGroup, 1995.564 .

11.,..: ,,/.. ..: -, 2007. 168 .

12. Chapman, Robert L. Dictionary ofAmerican Slang/ Robert L. Chapman. New York:HarperCollinsPublishers, 1995.526 .

13. Amberg, J. S. American English: History, Structure and Usage/ J.S.Amberg, D.J.Vause.NY:CUP,2009.223p .

14. Weintraub, J. FromAOK TO OZ:The Historical Dictionary ofAmerican Slang/ J.Weintraub//Humanities.2004.Vol.25(2). P. 1519 .

15.Wolfram, W.American English: dialects and variation/W. Wolfram, N. SchillingEstes.Blackwell, 2006. 452 p .

Thenotionofslangisstilladisputabletermincontemporarylinguistics.Therearea largenumberofcontradictorydefinitions,whichoftenmixupthenotionsslang,jargonand argot.Thearticlerepresentsadetailedanalysisoftheavailabledefinitionsofslanggivenby Russianandforeignlinguists,itsinglesoutthecharacteristicpeculiaritiesofslang,distinguishing itfromothersociolects.Thearticlecontainstheauthor'sdefinitionofthenotionanalyzed.The authorconsidersslangtobeasymbolofagroupmembershipamarkerofidentity .

   

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(3):JoeMadden,NeogenCorporation.WhatexactlydoesaCommittee memberdotobeconsideredforaSubcommitteeappointmentifyouchooseto beonaSubcommittee?

-75..۠ɠ (4):Typicallyifyou'renotontheSubcommitteebutyou'dliketobe.Is thatwhatyou'reasking?

(5):Yes,sir .

(6):Ithinkwhatwehaveisaveryopensystem.Thatis,ifyouhavetime andyouwouldliketobeontheSubcommittee,we'vehadsortofthetradition thatyoujustgoandparticipateinthatSubcommitteeevenifyou'renotan actualofficialmember .

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The types of dialogic units and their quantity in English and Russian oral scientific discussionaredescribedinthearticle .

   

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